Muhammad Ali Pasha Origin

Muhammad Ali Pasha “4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849” started as an Ottoman Albanian

commander in the Ottoman army and rose to the position of the ruler of Egypt.

He is regarded as the father and founder of modern Egypt due to the extensive

reforms to the economic, military, and cultural aspects of Egypt. He used his

leadership skills, political intelligence, and cunning to bring peace, prosperity, law,

and order to Egypt which was transformed into a true superpower and great influences all over the world at the time.

How Did Muhammad Ali Pasha Get the Rule of Egypt?

In 1798, Egypt was under the weak leadership of the Ottoman Empire but was

also occupied by the French forces under the control of Napoleon Bonaparte

himself who destroyed the Mamluk rulers on the battlefield but in 1801 the

French forces had to withdraw which left a vacuum that gave Muhammad Ali

the chance to seize the moment appointed himself the ottoman “Wali” governor

of Egypt to take control of the Ottoman army to re-occupy the province but he had other plans.

He used his support of the general public and the religious establishment to work

on taking more control and charge of the country and to eliminate the Mamluks

Muhammad Ali Pasha

controlled Egypt for more than 600 years. On the First of March in 1181, the

Mamluks gathered in the Cairo citadel and Muhammad Ali’s troops began killing

all the sixty-four Mamluks, including twenty-four commanders, he then dispatched

his troops through Egypt to destroy any remaining traces of the Mamluk forces.

He had a dream of creating his own dynasty and his own kingdom away from

the decaying Ottoman Empire, that’s why he transformed Egypt into a regional

power and declared himself the rightful successor. His dynasty ruled Egypt from its

date of foundation in 1805 until 1953 AD following the Egyptian Revolution.

Muhammad Ali Pasha Achievements in Egypt

He understood that if he wanted to detach Egypt from the Ottoman Empire

and make it truly independent then he has to have a more powerful economically

and militarily force. He developed a strategy based on agriculture as he planted crops

for the sole purpose of exportation like rice, sugarcane, and especially cotton.

All the income from agricultural production and export was used to develop public

work and national projects like irrigation, canals, dams, and barrages.

He also disbanded his foreign army and created a fleet and an army of pure

Egyptians who were commanded by the Turks and trained by French commanders

Muhammad Ali Pasha

in the art of warfare. He also started an educational revolution as he constructed

Western-style schools and universities produce doctors, engineers, veterinarians,

and other specialists. He sent educational expeditions to Europeans who

were trained in modern techniques to complete his bureaucrats.

He launched an industrial age in Egypt as he built factories to produce sugar,

glass, and textile that competed with the European product, and build ships,

weapons for the new army, and navy. There was also a dark side to his master

plan as he added excessive taxation to pay for all his expensive projects which led

him to lose a great deal of his public support. His control of agriculture expanded

Muhammad Ali Pasha

his monopolization of world trade led to a bad relationship and exchange with

Britain saw Egypt as a threat to its economical influence. He also tried to

expand his empire by invading Syria in 1831 but was stopped by the great forces o

f Britain, France, and Russia. Muhammad Ali had no choice but to sign 1841

treat, which commands Muhammad Ali to stripped of all the conquered territory

except Sudan but in return granted the hereditary governorship of Egypt for life.

Muhammad Ali Pasha Legacy

passed the rule of Egypt to his son Ibrahim in 1848 that died shortly after and

died in 1849. He was able to leave a great legacy which shows in the famous

Muhammad Ali mosque in Cairo. Under his rule, Egypt became a powerful nation

afters series of rapid economical expansions and modernization plus he entered

the international community of nations as an independent state, not as

a province of the Ottoman Empire. He built a powerful army that depended

on the scientific process, opened Egypt to European commerce and trade,

and most importantly improved education to match European standards.

He entered Egypt into industrial Egypt and created what has become known as modern Egypt.

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