How The Pyramids Were Built

One of history’s most ancient puzzles is the construction of the pyramids,

over and over again through the course of history, many nations, scholars

and scientists asked the question of “How The Pyramids Were Built“.

4,500 years ago Giza Pyramids constructed to immortalize the legacy

of the ancient Egyptian civilization for many generations to come, it also

able to offer insight about the life aspects of the ancient Egyptians from

religious to agricultural practices through the magical wall illustrations of the pyramids.

A workforce of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

The techniques used in constructing the Egyptian pyramids have baffled

historians and scientists for countless years. The pyramids are the subject of

many controversial hypotheses, the general theory based on the belief that

the huge stones were carved from the quarries using copper chisels, then these

blocks dragged and lifted into position but the method concerning the

movement and placement of these stones under a great dispute.

How The Pyramids Were Built

The form of the workforce under a huge debate as it was believed that

the pyramids were constructed using slave labor but after research published in 1990,

it turned out that the pyramids build by “tens of thousands of free skilled

workers” who lived and buried near the great pyramid and worked for a salary,

a wage of ten loaves of bread or a jug of beer per day or a form of tax payment

until the construction completed. They used hammers, chisels, and levers

capable of handling the stones. The workforce highly organized and managed to the highest level.

Location of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

The most important element in constructing a pyramid choosing the right location.

The pyramids constructed on the west side of the Nile River where the sunset

which believed where the dead enter the underworld, the location also

needed to be on the higher ground to avoid the danger of flooding at the time

of the Nile’s inundation. The location must be in close proximity from

the Nile River and on a firm rock base capable of supporting the massive

weight of any Pyramids with cracking or showing the sign of structural

weakness and more importantly must be in the close reach of the current capital.

The Base of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

The Pyramids were constructed using locally quarried limestone which

the main material of choice for all the pyramids. A higher quality of limestone

quarried near modern Cairo used for the outer casing. Granite used

in the construction of architectural elements of the roofs and the burial chamber

and also in the outer casing like the King Menkaure Pyramid, it quarried near

Aswan. The workers begin their work by preparing a strong foundation by

removing the loose sand from the rock base which made it completely flat.

How The Pyramids Were Built

The flat base accomplished by building low mud walls all around the base

and cutting the channels in a grid pattern over the surface, then afterward the

channels would be filled with water, and the level at which the water reached

marked. After the water of drained, all the sticking-out rock would be removed

and any void would be filled with stones in order to make the surface level perfectly flat.

The Architecture of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

The ancient Egyptians highly advanced in the field of astronomy as Each side

of the pyramid designed to face one of the cardinal points. The ancient Egyptian

builders observed the rising and setting of the northern star on the horizon which

explains why they began by establishing the true north first then the rest of the

other directions. They were able to make all the four sides exactly the same

length and in the right perfect corners. They bisected the angle thus obtaining

north and south lines, they also used their instruments in drawing right angels and find the east and the west angels.

Blocks Placement of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

One of the biggest mysteries surrounding the construction of the pyramid

the process by which the massive limestone blocks weighing every 2.2 tons

moved across the desert. A wall painting on a tomb dating to 1900 BC depicts 170

men dragging a huge state using ropes attached to a sled and in front of it men

pouring water over the sand in order to reduce friction and make it easier to

operate the sled. The ancient Egyptians understood that adding water to the sand

increased its stiffness to drag the sleds more easily across the surface. They calculated

the amount the water necessary to reduce the friction depending on the type of sand,

the optimal amount of waterfalls between 2% and 5% of the complete value of the sand.

This discovery highly important as it not only explains how the blocks moved

but also helps the researchers in understanding the behavior of other granular materials like coal or even asphalt or concrete.

Construction Method of the Pyramids/How The Pyramids Were Built

One of the most acknowledged theories on what method used to raise the blocks

among the Egyptologists is ramps. The Greek historian shows in his writings the usage

of levers used to raise the blocks from one level to the next. As the pyramids

grow in size so did the ramps to the point where the ramp has to as huge as the

pyramid. Internal ramps also used as the grand gallery believed to have

acted as a trolley guide for counterbalance weights. They’re also a theory which

states that a form of limestone concrete cast in wooden molds then it would

transform from a wet to a hard substance after undergoing a chemical reaction.

The method of the pyramids completely shrouded with mystery

and many theories are still open for discussion.